In the text Feminization, Recognition, and the Cosmological in Xishuangbanna, Komlosy talks about the history of the marginalization of women in China. The article examines the feminization of Dai and Xishuangbanna people living in China through the institution of a strong Dai cosmological perspective (Anouska 123). The Dai peoples face a systemized exploitation and mistreatment. The average Dai women living in Xishuangbanna are seen in a wider perspective of being a minority amongst other populations that live in China. Their view captures the popular cosmological perception held on youth femininity. The Banna have been feminized over the years such that they have now become an important tourist destination (Anouska 125). The world now views the Dai people's as accommodating and compliant. The author also highlights the significant promotion for Dai women and its role in supporting the war against Hanification of Banna.
The Dai also understand the feminine potency to be cosmologically liable in unleashing unpredictable and dangerous forces. The author also indicates that the moral understandings of the Theravada Buddhist support the belief that when dominant males maltreat women, the men end up getting bound to a reciprocal moral relationship with the women those they maltreat (Anouska 127). The Dai and the Banna have been having protracted negotiations on their identity across the frontier borderland shared by the two communities. The author makes significant effort to highlight the important cultural disparities between the two neighboring Dai and Banna populations. The Dai, in line with their cosmological beliefs, see the act of male maltreatment of women as acceptable.
In the text Orienting the View in Hard Bargaining in Sumatra: Western Travelers and Toba Bataks in the Marketplace of Souvenirs, Andrew Causey highlights on the processes that individual people pursue to distinguish themselves from others. People manage to nurture unique identities that change with circumstances (Andrew 23). Tourism is primarily associated with the notion of place. Locals get to interact with tourists in places where both believe they assume a right they deserve. The locals would consider such rights are owing to the social significance they attach to their homelands. The tourists would expect such right as accruing from their presumed right to travel. Travelers need to understand that their traveling is laced with responsibilities that they have to meet. The author also discusses the importance of "home, the reasons that influence tourists buy things during travel and the possibility of preserving traditions in local tourist sites (Andrew 28). The author also highlights the possibility of changing art forms, the meaning of innovation.
The author makes a good effort in discussing the importance of place, the process that people use to claim a place, the definition of authentic material objects and art, and the reasons that drive consumption amongst people. Tourists get an opportunity to break away from their stringent cultural rules in their backyard. They feel free from living within the traditional social bonds that they have created in their daily life (Andrew 29). They get an opportunity to test new things that would not be accepted ordinarily in their culture. Tourists enjoy a form of utopia created by an in-between space given to them for purposes of preserving their tourist intents.
Andrew Causey, Orienting the View in Hard Bargaining in Sumatra: Western Travelers and Toba Bataks in the Marketplace of Souvenirs (Hawaii, 2003), pp. 23-41.
Anouska Komlosy, "Feminization, Recognition, and the Cosmological in Xishuangbanna," in Siu-Keung Cheung, et al., eds., Marginalization in China: Recasting Minority Politics (London: Palgrave), pp. 123-143.
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