Developmental Disabilities: Annotated Bibliography

Paper Type:  Annotated bibliography
Pages:  7
Wordcount:  1709 Words
Date:  2022-10-01

Gremillion, M. L., & Martel, M. M. (2014). Merely Misunderstood? Receptive, Expressive, and Pragmatic Language in Young Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 43(5), 765-776.

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This research study focuses on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a common type of developmental disability in children. According to the research, ADHD is the leading mental disorder diagnosis in children. The analysis considers a child as any minor that is leaving under the support of their parents or guardians. The study points out that the disorder can easily get reflected from personality difficulties at later stages in life and hence, encourages parents and teachers to exercise a little patience with the children.

The study involved 109 preschoolers, aged between three and six years and their caregivers. 59 percent of the sample population were males and 31 percent comprised of minority ethnic communities (27% African American and !5 % Latinos and children from mixed races). The caregivers were primarily referred to as parents and divided into categories of single fathers, single mothers, foster parents and guardians (close relatives). The use of expressive and reactive vocabulary showed that preschoolers with ADHB show immense difficulties in coordinating their speech and thought process,

The study recommends language assessment in children at early stages to identify and rectify any conditions that could affect their speech at later stages in life, especially for children that show ADHB symptoms. Parents and other caregivers should give adequate attention to speech development in children. ADHB is commonly mistaken for typical infant tantrums, but the effects are severe and could affect the communication capabilities of the child for the rest of their lives. Giving attention to such children helps to boost their mental well-being and hence breeds a sense of value and understanding. If a child is acting up at home or in school, the assigned or available caregiver should attempt to understand their point of view. Research in developmental disabilities indicates that poor language development in children may limit high cognitive functions such as voluntary control and sustained attention.

Additionally, the research findings indicate higher ADBH symptoms in parent-related assessments as compared to those that involved the teachers. This finding suggests the need for parents to strike a balance between work and life commitments to dictate more time in improving the condition of children living with ADBH. Teachers and other caregivers in schools should also practice classroom activities that enhance the self-confidence of children with ADBH.

Lehr, M., Wecksell, B., Nahum, L., Neuhaus, D., Teel, K., Linares, L., & Diaz, A. (2016). Parenting Stress, Child Characteristics, and Developmental Delay from Birth to Age Five in Teen Mother-Child Dyads. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 25(3), 1035-1043.

This article defines developmental disability as chronic health conditions that result from mental or physical impairments, which begin before adulthood. This study extensively examines the relationship between lifestyle choices and physical conditions during pregnancy and parenting and the rising number of developmental disabilities that occur before the age of five. The study involved 133 participants from a free-of-cost and voluntary program for young and teenage mothers. The analysis involved groups of five, in different age limit categories.

Development disability affects the lives of the children through hindering their speech, learning ability, independent living, and mobility. The impairments can be detected at childhood and go a long way in impacting on the lives of the individuals and those around them. The most common types of developmental disabilities in children are; physical such as blindness, mental as in learning disabilities and both physical and mental, as in Down syndrome. The leading causes of developmental disabilities in children are genetic disorders and complications during pregnancy or childbirth. These complications result from preterm birth, infections, drinking alcohol or stress during pregnancy.

Lack of exposure and guidance in childhood can also cause learning disabilities in children. These challenges result from differences in brain stimulations which limits the ability to process information from speech and body language. Unfortunately, these disabilities go unnoticed until children begin school; and they are commonly mistaken for poor intelligence.

Educators and families need to formulate and implement strategies that promote the comfort of these children in schools and at home. Communities should also finance social and physical activities in early learning to help in recognizing the disabilities at early stages of life. Increasing the level of parental care and concern for children living with developmental disabilities is also vital to enhance their sense of belonging and confidence.

Vaz, S., Cordier, R., Falkmer, M., Ciccarelli, M., Parsons, R., McAuliffe, T., & Falkmer, T. (2015). Should Schools Expect Poor Physical and Mental Health, Social Adjustment, and Participation Outcomes in Students with Disability? PLoS ONE, 10(5), 1-23.

This research study seeks to determine the commonly used metrics in measuring the effect of mental and physical disability on desired outcomes in children. The findings indicate the use of inaccurate and insensitive screening tools (in at least 32%) highly contributes to poor social adjustments in children with disability, as compared to their peers. The results further point out education and social competencies highly depend on close relationships at home and in school. The available information on the relationship between developmental disabilities in children and poor adjustments in education and social models is inadequate. Although a majority of literature reviews on the subject indicate poor outcomes in children living with developmental disabilities, the variance in the results remains ignored.

This article defines the change the social stereotype that disability status is the major contributing factor in the poor performance of affected children. Education policymakers should understand that children living with developmental abilities can thrive in the same social environments as their peers. Creating a desirable and comfortable environment for disabled children is a collective moral responsibility. It sounds impractical for one person to address and stop discrimination against children living with disabilities. Each member of the society should assume the responsibility of improving the quality of life for children living with chronic developmental conditions.

Increased activism and institutional support on the subject has reinstated the inclusion of children with disabilities as a fundamental universal right. However, the broader society needs to do more in promoting the social inclusion and participation of children living with developmental institutions. Allowing disabled children in schools does not count as efficient inclusivity. Schools and other systems should invest in physical equipment and psychiatric assistance which promote the general well-being of disabled children. Despite the efforts by federal agencies, the children continue to face challenges that go unaddressed by the school administrators. The child cannot enjoy equitable participation without changes in perceptions and attitudes of peers, caregivers and other stakeholders in the sectors. Schools should introduce mass education programs that teach the rest of the student population on ways they can enhance the lives and academic competency of children that suffer from chronic development illnesses. Such strategies will help in creating an accommodative and empathetic learning environment where disabled children can fairly compete with their peers.

Miller, H. L., Pavlik, K. M., Kim, M. A., & Rogers, K. C. (2017). An Exploratory Study of the Knowledge of Personal Safety Skills Among Children with Developmental Disabilities and Their Parents. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 30(2), 290-300.

The article is an analytical study on 37 health records of children that suffer from developmental disabilities. The respondents were participants in a community health program which aimed at improving the safety of mentally incapacitated children. The research aims to assess the group's knowledge of personal safety strategies and to examine the views of parents on the subject. At least 56 % of the children reported knowledge on what they could term as inappropriate touch in sexual abuse and harming physical confrontations from peers and adults. 70 percent of the parents involved expressed uncertainty on whether their children can identify and report any forms of harassment.

Children with developmental disabilities experience challenges in independent living, and hence they face more risks than their typically-developing counterparts. The children are vulnerable to heinous acts such as sexual and physical abuse and problems in carrying out normal activities such as cooking or bathing. Parents and other caregivers should take their time to teach them some tips for personal safety and to increase their alertness and intuition in dangerous situations. Establishing a friendly parent-child relationship is vital in enhancing communication between the two parties. Children that feel valued and appreciated tend to open up on sensitive information such as sexual abuse from their friends or relatives.

Bazzano, A., Wolfe, C., Zylowska, L., Wang, S., Schuster, E., Barrett, C., & Lehrer, D. (2013). Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) for Parents and Caregivers of Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Community-Based Approach. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(2), 298-308. doi:10.1007/s10826-013-9836-9

This is another article on the related topic of coping with stress by parents of children with developmental disabilities. The authors study the effect of mindfulness as a stress reduction method. Study methods conducted evolved around an eight-week program for parents and caregivers of children with developmental disabilities in English and Spanish at a community non-profit local organization.

Demographic Participants in this study includes a wide range of factors age, race/ethnicity, primary language, education, relationship to a child, and level of disability high/moderate/low. Before the study participants /caregivers/parents reported a high percentage of decline in their overall physical, mental overall health. However, results of the study showed an increase of at least 20% after incorporating the (MBSR) approach to coping with a child diagnosed with a learning disability.

The outcomes of the article mirror conclusion about the negative psychological impact of weak economic conditions and an unhealthy family environment. On the other hand, emphasizes on the importance of incorporating the use and awareness of (MBSR) throughout local community as a resource to a parent of children with learning disability to improve the overall quality of life of both parents and children with learning disabilities. The article invites for further research of culture and socioeconomic factors in the MBSR strategies.

Buggey, T., Crawford, S. C., & Rogers, C. L. (2016). Self-Modeling to Promote Social Initiations With Young Children With Developmental Disabilities. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 33(2), 111-119. doi:10.1177/1088357616667591

The author conducted a study of the contemporary method of feed forward use in video self-modeling (VSM). The study was applied to four children 3-4 years of age. During the...

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