First, let us know the definitions of the terms race, gender, and social class. Race is a categorization of human beings, based on mutual social and physical qualities, often regarded as different by society. Gender is a common definition of men and women, determined by the functions, roles, and tasks endorsed to men and women in their private life, public life and the society in general. Social class is a status order in which human beings are categorized based on the respect and prestige earned through wealth accumulation and economic success.
The race, gender and social class based challenges common in most of the societies are accustomed. These social conceptions have different controversial issues derived from a single aspect. This means these three terms are related to each other to bring a certain human experience. The term intersectionality has been used by Crenshaw (1991) and Collins (2000) to give a definition of the black woman's experience.
Intersectionality is defined as "particular forms of intersecting oppressions. For instance, the intersection of gender and race, sexuality and notion" (Pelak, 2007). Intersectionality between gender, race and social class figures out how they connect in relation to oppression. In this study, the clarification of how suppressions, oppression and social inequalities emerge on the basis of the intersection of race, gender, and social class is discussed.
Although different colored people are prone to unexpected and undesirable behaviors and conduct, in a grouping of interracial, gendered social societies, black men and women are exposed to oppressive and controlled treatments in the social and economic life, by the so-called superiors. The term 'woman' go through some kinds of oppression in male-controlled societies. It is so much unfair and inhuman that women are ruled over and disgraced by fellow human beings because of their race, gender, and social class. Particularly in the U.K. and the U.S, where there has been recorded the highest levels of race and gender-based problems, black women's movements have been formed to not only to fight against gender discrimination but also eradicate the racial issues. Black women who are adversely affected by the intersection of gender and race are ostracized by other human beings. A proof of this typical discrimination is shown in the U.S., where the white women treat and thinks of the black women wickedly.
Collins (2000) emphasizes that 'at the moment, some of the women in the U.S. who have great capabilities in research of variety of issues confess the need for a variety, whilst omit colored women from the research, with a claim that they lack the qualification to understand and speak the experiences of black women, since they are not black themselves'. Collins tries to show how in the U.S black women are discriminated due to their color differences with the white women.
In Europe, where the citizens are the so-called most civilized, in discourse, practically and theoretically, it is quite the opposite. as per the Brixton Black Women's Group (BBWG), in 1981, "black women's position puts us at the meeting of all ways of suppression in the society-racial subjugation, sexual subjugation and economic abuse this means we are an expected part of many diverse skirmishes, as black women" (mama, 1995). Therefore, it is evident that most black women are excluded, not only for their gender but also for their appearance. This makes them stay behind in their carriers, and the men and few selected women rule over them.
The social effects of gender and race-based stratification extends to not just black and white people categorization, but also to the economic basis of the labor market. Whilst some women are still in the oppression of white elite men, they ostracize other women, instead of fighting for black women's rights and stabilize their independence against men. Brown and Misra (2003) make an assumption that the Latins success and experience in the labor market in the U.S are lower than the white women. As such, white women deserve high paying jobs and opportunities and as the social class of the white women increases, those of the black women in the entrepreneurial age decrease gradually. This, therefore, is an implication that gender and racial based stratification dictates the social status in the market of labor (pp. 490-491). The social status of black women will remain as it is, or even deteriorate, as those in power ostracize on black women.
The status of women and men of a different race is as a result of the intersection of race, gender, and social class. Schneider, (2013) states that the changes in gaining inequalities and wealth distribution are steady with racial and gender differences, as white men's starting salaries in 2010 get to the peak, at $ 32,472, while that of black men remaining at $ 28,674. However, the social and economic condition of women remains a question to debate on, as the proportion of white women is more than that of black men, by $28,054, as the black women still remain behind.
Equality in all men should mean the same rate of earning, and if the male-dominated all the women, then the earning percentage of women should be lower than men. Therefore, Schneider's study shows that the imbalance between human being is not just the completion of men-women sovereignty, but also the appearances.
In conclusion, the intersectionality of race, gender, and social class are not the only causatives of social and economic discrimination, stratification, and suppression, but also race and gender intersectionality. Black women movements exist because of white women's gender and racist oppression. Women movements do not categorize women and men in gender differences. Black women are discriminated because of their low social class. These arguments have clearly shown the different experiences in all the categories. It is therefore evident that race is not a reason to classify men and women, since if so, all women in men dominated world should suffer, and the white women would not be earning more than the black men, as the black women remain lowly paid.
Schneider, Markus P. A. "Illustrating The Implications of How Inequality Is Measured: Decomposing Earnings Inequality by Race and Gender". Journal of Labor Research, vol 34, no. 4, 2013, pp. 476-514. Springer Nature, doi:10.1007/s12122-013-9168-y.
Ritzer, George. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology. Blackwell Publishing, 2007.
Amina Mama. "Beyond The Masks: Race, Gender and Subjectivity". Amazon.Com, 1992, https://www.amazon.com/Beyond-Masks-Subjectivity-Critical-Psychology/dp/0415035449.
Collins, P. H. "Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness and The Politics of Empowerment". Amazon.Com, 2000, https://www.amazon.com/Black-Feminist-Thought-Consciousness-Empowerment/dp/0415964725.
Browne, I., and Misra, J. The Intersection of Gender and Race in The Labor Market. 2003, https://www.academia.edu/647413/The-Intersection-of-Gender-and-Race-in-the-Labor-Market. Accessed 18 Mar 2019.
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