Part I: Identify the Articles
What is the number of the article you have chosen from the Final Project Articles document? Article Number: Volume No. 24; Issue No.4
What is the full APA style citation of the article you identified from the references list of your final project article? Edwards, M. P., McMillan, D. E., & Fallis, W. M. (2013). Napping during breaks on night shift: critical care nurse managers perceptions. Dynamics, 24(4), 30-35.
Part II: Purpose, Research Question, and Hypothesis
What is the purpose of the study? The study explores the perceptions of critical care unit managers and their experiences with napping practices of their nursing staff working on night shift. The assessment encompasses the nurses perceptions of the benefits and barriers to napping which includes not napping regarding patient safety and nurses' health and safety
What is/is the research question(s)? What are the perceptions of the critical care unit managers and experiences with their nursing staff's napping practices on night shift?
What is/are the hypothesis(es) of the study? H1. Napping during night shift breaks is an effective strategy to decrease fatigue and enhance the performance of nurses in a variety of work environments
H2 There is mixed support for napping during night shift break
What is/are the explanatory variable(s)? The explanatory variable is the length of time that the nurses spent napping while on the night shift. This time factor significantly varied and most naps lasting from 20-120 minutes
What is/are the response variable(s)? The response variable was the probability of napping on a night shift among the nurses on night shift.
Part III: Research Methods
What population are the researchers interested in? The study focused on the nurses working within critical care unit who experience napping during night shift break
What is the sample? How did the researchers select their sample? The sample consisted of approximately 1030 critical care unit nurses who were members of the Canadian Association of Critical Care Nurses (CACCN). They received an invitation to participate in the web-based survey via email messages sent to those with active email addresses. The estimation of this process was that at least 6% -8% of the participants to whom the notification was sent held administrative positions. Forty-seven managers responded to the survey.
How did the researchers collect their data? The researchers used a web-based survey served to approximately 1030 critical care unit nurses with active email addresses. The final study comprised of 28 questions. 12 of the survey questions elicited information to describe the sample. The rest of the survey questions was divided into three sections including night shift routines; perceptions of napping on the night shift; and knowledge of incidents related to fatigue.
What statistical analysis did the researchers use? The identified data was entered into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and SPSS software for analysis. The study used descriptive statistics to report empirical evidence relating to the perceptions of managers and nurses break duration. Relative frequencies shown in percentages were used to describe data. Also, the Friedman rank test was used to examine differences in the managers' perceptions of napping and their opinions of colleagues and administrators' views of napping. Ethnograph 6.0, which is a software program for data management, was used for content analysis.
Part IV: Results or Key Findings
What was/were the result(s) of the research question(s)? The respondent managers identified fatigue as a threat to patient and nurse safety. 40% of the nurse managers were found to be aware that nurse tiredness on night shift contributed to different incidents or errors thus affecting patient care
What were the differences in the groups that were being studied? The managers who responded to the survey showed varied approval of nurses napping during breaks on night shifts. 55% of the managers either somewhat or strongly approved of napping whereas only 28% somehow or strongly approved of napping. Also, only 4% of the managers perceived the executive as somewhat or strongly supportive of nurses napping during night shift break
Did the result support the researchers hypothesis or not? The research largely supported the hypothesis. It found that;
Naps on a night shift have both positive and negative consequences
Support for napping on a night shift was found to vary. For instance, 11% of the respondent managers were concerned by the fact that nurses who do not come to work rested and relied on getting a nap on break while 13% of the managers did not support the use of hospital resources for napping
List (with support) any other results that you found interesting. Despite the fact that the nursing managers acknowledged the prevalence of napping among nurses on night shifts, 77% of them reported a lack of written napping policy.
Part V: Limitations
What did the researchers state as the limitations of their study? The fact that the nurses working in the critical nursing section invited to the survey were anonymous implied that the population used based on the assumption that some of them would be the nursing head. Virtual participation through email notifications is not highly reliable. The researchers could not verify the genuineness in the responses.
Why are these limitations? Working on assumptions in determining the critical aspects of a sample population compounded by the lack of a one-on-one interaction between the researcher and the respondent opened the findings to potential bias.
Please list a question you have about the study that was not addressed in this article. What mechanisms have hospital facilities and critical nursing care managers initiated to address high napping incidences among nurses on night shifts?
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