It is the culture that humans would like to categorize things and create groupings that explain origin and relation, to this effect, research is also divided into two. Applied research, which will be used to conduct this survey; it is the type of research used to achieve particular targets; it answers direct questions that have an immediate influence in our lives (Walsh, 2001). Pure research is that which aims at gaining more information about the world; it is driven by curiosity to expand our knowledge, however, it is not directly applicable (Krishnaswamy, Appa & Mathirajan, 2006). The research will further take a descriptive design where I will aim to answer questions such as who, what, when, where, and how associated with the success factors of the Singapore Airlines. The nonapplicable design; explanatory, is ineffective since it is only used when there are few or no earlier studies on the topic, it aims to gain familiarity and insight (Srivastava & Rego, 2011).
Quantitative research is that which require numerical explanations that deduce results; it uses figures and numbers to explain the hypothesis (Creswell, 2014). It enables the researcher to use certain and sophisticated statistical instruments that ultimately define the event. When attempting to describe an event; qualitative research, explains the kind and quality of a subject, and by using historical theories it helps to create mental pictures of the topic. Due to its nature, it is dependent on the views and biases of the researcher; for the purpose of the study in hand; its essence will be minimized to explaining quantitative results (Yin, 2013). Complete and synergetic analysis of data is what this survey needs; the mixed method is the cure for this ailment. It is essential since it explains data in a qualitative and quantitative manner; this very aspect will be instrumental in achieving the goals, objectives, and targets of this survey.
Primary data will allow us to collect information on a particular topic; since it gives answers to direct questions about the inquiry in hand (Kara, 2013). The advantage of this is that the information we collect will be done by ourselves through methods such as surveys, direct observation, and interviews. It will also involve watching our subjects at work; where we can see and count the human interaction between the employees and customers and even witness different stressful situations and see how the consumers were served and if a problem was solved. Secondary information which we can acquire from government population census or administrative data of the company in question will help us to know accurate information about the Singapore Airlines (Vartanian, 2011). This data is a combination of all day's activity compiled and illustrated carefully digitally; it will give the number of clients and there we can measure increase or decrease in consumer satisfaction.
The research will aim to collect both qualitative and quantitative data; this information will be essential to answer questions at the heart of this study (Baran & Jones, 2016). Question to be addressed include; customer loyalty, effective strategies employed by the company, the cause, and effect of specific plans, the quality of services expected by consumers and what factors should an Asian airline pursue. The central aspect of tourism to humans is escaped, from stressful situations and environments. Push factors are internal motives that drive a person to seek activities far from the usual to satisfy needs and unsatisfied wants (Woodside & Martin, 2007). Pull factors are those conditions created by the tourism sector that lure people to visit different parts of the world. Asia as a continent has a broad range of cultures, historical monuments, and museums; these factors make it a tourism hot stop, the airline that has the best consumer-friendly policies will grasp the greatest market share.
Data collection method
To critically analyze and evaluate success factors of Singapore Airlines that affect on Asian customer loyalty and satisfaction.
Define success factors of Singapore Airlines
Analyze internal environment of Singapore Airlines concerning:
Insight of customer expectation and benefit
Interaction between customer and staff
Suppliers and partners
To find out specialized strategy of Singapore Airlines for customer satisfaction
To figure out the customer expectations from airlines for their international travel
To understand Asian market trend through aviation industry overview
Data collection method selected
To effectively and efficiently collect the required data, the survey shall use the following methods; questionnaires, observation, interviews and administrative data. Questionnaires refer to forms filed in by respondents privately where they can express their opinions without fear of compromise or external influence. Interviews are one on one conversation with respondents where the interviewer tries to gain knowledge and insight from the sample group while studying behavioral patterns (Olsen, 2012). Observation will be sufficient where we can study the human interaction between the employees of the Singapore airlines and their customers. Administrative data will help us have a clear picture of the company position and measure customer satisfaction. Surveys, longitudinal studies and case studies will be ineffective in this research since we are targeting a particular topic.
Survey and questionnaire
The questionnaire will include a total of twenty questions; four items from each category which are brief and straight to the point. The form will include a variety of question types where we will be able to determine and find answers for the research question. Open ended question as used in question eight, nine and twelve will be essential in finding out consumer opinions where we will not limit their thinking to gain knowledge on the topic (Olsen, 2012). Multiple choice and checklist questions are also included, which will help us find out accurate information concerning the subject. Fill in the blanks and filter questions have been used to ensure that we get the right respondents for the study. Poll, ranking and rating scales will not be part of the questionnaire since the rest have the capability to give us results.
The study shall take place in busy Asian airports, where the Singapore Airlines flies regularly, this will be effective in that we will be able to observe and talk to many airline consumers and try to find out reasons for the success of the airline. The study will take approximately three weeks where first we will observe customers and airline employees' relationship and see what factors their consumers love most about the airline (Brinker & Minnick, 1987). The second week we will indulge in face to face interviews with staff and customers where we would like to listen to their individual opinions on the matter. The third week we will issue questionnaires to users and request them to fill out the necessary information as well as collect the administration data which we will need to compare with the completed forms.
Pilot test of survey
For the pilot test the study will take place in Malaysia for various reasons; it is one of the major tourist attraction countries in Asia, they speak English, and the Singapore Airlines are present in this market (Johnson, 2013). The pilot study will mainly include face to face interviews with respondents since it will be much faster and easier to talk to consumers and find out their opinions. A little questionnaire will be present to capture important aspects of the research that relate to the research questions and objectives. A sample population of twenty respondents will be able to be obtained by the questionnaire, but we will conduct a lot of interviews which are easier and direct responses are collected first hand from the consumers (Ary, Jacobs & Razavieh, 2010).
Quantitative and qualitative methods of collecting data are only relevant when a choice of a suitable experimental subject is achieved (Sekaran & Bougie, 2010). Probability-based sampling involves the use of a mechanical procedure involving random numbers; alternatively, the determination may be made through methods that invoke elements of judgment. For the purpose of the research which quantitative in nature probability approach in the form of a random sampling method will be applied. The advantages are that the respondents have an equal chance of being picked, necessary when dealing with a large number of possible respondents and when its hard to identify every member of the population. The only limitation for this method is that we will be dealing with respondents that we will only have limited time to access their opinion (Hektner, Schmidt & Csikszentmihalyi, 2007). Therefore, the sample will include respondents that agree to answer our questions with the limited time they have.
The sampling method will then require logic and the art of non-contradictory identification where the sample will be chosen depending on gender, nationality and age where we will divide the sample population into distinct groups and try and find them in the airport (Kerr, Burgess& Houghton, 2014). The study will then aim to achieve validity and reliability by creating internal, external, statistical and construct validity to show a relationship between the research question and study conducted. The population that we aim to see and have the opportunity to interview will be between five hundred respondents on a daily basis, but we will only require a hundred respondents in total. We expect to review ten percent of the total population of Singapore Airlines customers during the week this has been calculated and is a suitable number to for the research (Kumar & Shah, 2015).
Data analysis method
Data collected from our sample will be gathered and recorded in an Excel worksheet where we analyze the information by coming with calibrated measures that will categorize opinion in customer satisfaction. The interviews will include checklist questions where we will pick against the choices provided by the respondents; the questions will be brief while aiming to answer the research problems in detail (Ott & Longnecker, 2010). The information collected will be generalizable through testing where we will be able to calculate the number of people who gave a precise response which may be similar to others. The experiment will also be controlled and fixed where we will not change any question or methods that we aim to use during the study. It will also include pre and post measurement of change in responses between the pilot study and the original survey that will be conducted (Lerman, 2016).
After collection of data, it will be analyzed and represented in bar graphs that show the relation between the responses given by the respondents and the research question provided (Borgelt, 2010). Representation tables and charts will also be provided to analyze the information in a different light vividly. The various methods or representing data are necessary since they will be at heart to explain the responses that we had received during the study. For the hypothesis, I will be using correlation methods where it will be possible to measure a variety of responses rather than a single variable (Agarwal, 2003). The sample correlation is denoted by the letter r, which lies between negative one and positive one, it quantifies the direction and strength of linear association. For example, if r is equal to +0.8 it shows a strong relationship between the independent and dependent variable while -0.8 shows weak correlation.
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