How Two Different Theorists Marx and Weber Would Explain the Same Article

Paper Type:  Essay
Pages:  6
Wordcount:  1649 Words
Date:  2021-05-27

How would Marx analyze the article?

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Karl Marx has significantly contributed to the establishment of modern avenues of critique and assessment of social, economic and political environments that exist in the community. Critical analysis of different perspectives in the community is a major cause of better and deeper understanding of different issues that affect the community as a whole. Karl Marx established some principles that can be used to assess the article on the commentary of President-elect Donald Trump on the allegation of Russian meddling in American elections.

Exercise of critical doubt

Amongst the many principles put forward by Karl Marx is the principle of critical approach in which it is important to place doubt on every single information and situation to have a better understanding. Exercising doubt helps create different opinions and perspectives about a scenario which helps to increase understanding of various political and social situation. In this case, to understand better the article the opposition expressed by President-elect Donald Trump against the national intelligence agencies can be viewed from different viewpoints.

- Trump aims at consolidating integrity and honesty in the national intelligence agencies.

From this critical point, it can be assessed that the president critique and opposition of the national intelligence agencies daily briefs aims at improving the credibility of the information that the national intelligence agencies gather. Trump is aware that the biases of the information that the organizations wield can lead to bigger problems such as diplomatic contests between America and Russia. To improve these relations and filter unbiased information Trump will be able to increase the honesty and the integrity of the information that reaches him from the intelligence agencies.

- Trump aims at establishing a diplomatic mileage with a country that has been perceived as a major contestant for European dominance.

Trump approach can improve relations between the two countries which have been on each other throat for decades due to ideological differences. The president-elect approach can be able to throw the Russians off balance which will make it difficult for Russia to anticipate the new regime actions and strategy. Karl Marx critique approach notes that it can improve establish more facts and reality regarding a situation which can further improve decision making and understand the difference that exists regarding ideology.

- Conflict of interest

Conflict of interest is a major approach to the social analysis used by Karl Marx. In this approach, it is important to establish and understand different viewpoints and conflict of interests that exists in the society. In this case, Trump is opposed to the national intelligence agencies briefings and disregards their reports whereas Senator McCain thinks it is important to investigate the allegations.

Identify and discuss two different approaches. How would Weber analyze the article?

Max Weber is credited with the rationalization approach in which the traditions, values, and motivating emotions are changed to explain the actions of people. The decision by Trump to ignore the warnings and counsel by the national intelligence agencies can be argued in different Weber rationalization approaches. Decisions are made to elicit a chain of reaction according to Weber and the different values and traditions attached to making such decisions affects the outcomes and perception of a particular situation. In this case, Trump response to the national intelligence agencies counsel can be rationalized by Weber principles.

Practical rationality

According to practical rationality weber judges life and events by the individual pragmatic and egoistic interests. In this case, Trump's response can be viewed from a practical rationality by referencing his aims and interests at large. Trump aims at embarrassing Obama administration and protesting the negative role that the national intelligence agencies have played regarding counseling former American leaders. Trump aims to achieve independence and more competency of the intelligence bodies by creating doubt about the credibility of the information as well as the routine that has been upheld traditionally by other leaders.

Regarding pragmatic action, it is a philosophical approach in which a thought is considered as an instrument for predicting outcomes and solving problems. From Trump point of view, his objection of the daily briefs aims at changing the problems regarding disagreement between different national intelligence organizations. With the new approach, the national intelligence agencies will increase the credibility and transparency regarding sharing information regarding national security which will change people perception of Trump's authority and leadership. The new Trump regime aims at changing the Americans perception regarding all-powerful government and executive where the president is the major player in the most decision-making of the government. This according to Weber is a pragmatic approach that aims at increasing the people confidence with his administration by sharing authority and responsibility within the government ranks.

Theoretic rationality

According to Weber this approach of rationality aims at establishing a conscious mastery of reality through the construction of precise abstract concepts instead of actions (Weber, 1998). Actions. In this case, there is attribution of causality in actions, and theoretical rationalization is undergirded and given momentum that transcends the sheer given routine. It is routine for the American president to listen to the national intelligence agencies verdict on different issues but Trump ignores their primary role with the aim of increasing his political mileage and domination in American politics.

The Protestant Ethic

Identify and discuss two different approaches. How would Weber analyze the article?

Max Weber studied the role of the serfs and the laborers in Germany where feudal estates were still operational. After his studies, Weber concluded that the serfs would do anything to get rid of the serf status which could guarantee them freedom. However, Weber noted that freedom was illusionary because most often it resulted in poverty after freeing themselves from serfdom in the estates. Life became more uncertain, and security significantly declined, from this view it can be viewed that freedom is an important aspect and desire in every social-economic context. After this discovery, Weber wanted to assess the role played by religion which was aimed at establishing the contribution of religion to social change.

Capitalism may even be identical with the restraint, or at least a rational tempering, of this irrational impulse. But capitalism is identical with the pursuit of prot, and forever renewed prot, using continuous, rational, capitalistic enterprise. For it must be so: in a wholly capitalistic order of society, an individual capitalistic enterprise which did not take advantage of its opportunities for protmaking would be doomed to extinction PP 33. This is an ideal definition of capitalism according to Weber, from this perspective a rational approach to economic activity according to Weber views that economic players just like the Protestants consider different possibilities and course of action. Every possibility from a rational view has its consequences which can be attributed to positive or negative possibilities. Such economic decisions are not made on the basis of religion and traditions. Rational capitalism is the processes where the actors play as problem solvers and also aim at establishing the balance between gains and losses. In protestant Ethic and the spirit of capitalism Weber`s primary concern was the influence of religious ideas on the development and the advancement of capitalism. According to Weber in the previous mankind societies before the western civilization religious forces and ethical ideals were central towards the development of societal norms and conduct. The early religious forces inhibited the development of capitalist spirit in which Weber assesses the role of religions in the development of the economic spirit.

From an ascetic point of view, Weber notes that self-denial which was largely practiced in religion played a significant role in the early societies especially asceticism of Protestantism. Protestantism presented a worldly asceticism in which the highest obligation in this platform was to fulfill the worldly affairs. This was in contrast with the Catholic and monastic life and religious practice in which the primary objective transcended the demand of secular existence and practices. In protestant ethic Weber notes that there is a combination of religious discipline and denial of pleasure in life. From a capitalist point of view, strict earning of money and wealth is a combination of the general strict avoidance of spontaneous life enjoyment in which man is dominated by the urge to make more money.

Weber approach aims at connecting protestant religions with the changes that were necessary to allow the development of capitalism spirit. The protestant idea of calling as well as worldly asceticism were independent forces that led to the creation of institutions and structures that led unintended reformation and the new way of thinking. These ideologies played a significant role in the establishment of new perspectives and views which Weber credit with the emergence of capitalism and workers. Weber significantly argues that Catholic and monastic asceticism were the primary inhibitors of capitalism spirit.

"Irregular work, which the ordinary laborer is often forced to accept, is often unavoidable, but always an unwelcome state of transition. A man without a calling thus lacks the systematic, methodical character which is ... demanded by worldly asceticism." (Protestant, p. 161). From this quote it can be noted that the new world view introduced by Protestantism significantly contributed to the establishment of structures such as money, trade, and commerce. Max Weber notes that Protestantism was the primary factor in the economic development and success of protestant groups in early European capitalism because Protestantism reformations encouraged worldly success which was primarily interpreted as a sign of salvation. Protestantism offered Weber a concept of calling which gave worldly activities a religious character.

Calvinism provides a crucial explanation, their belief in predestination which developed psychological need to establish the value of the material as a sign of Gods favor. This Calvinistic view established a new ideology and destroyed the existing traditional ideologies that were favored by Catholic and monastic beliefs such as asceticism and led to the birth of modern capitalism. In conclusion, Weber notes that Protestantism caused the emergence of capitalistic spirit, but it was not the only contributing factor.

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How Two Different Theorists Marx and Weber Would Explain the Same Article. (2021, May 27). Retrieved from

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