Recognisable musical ideas meant to stand for characters, ideas, or specific emotions - Program music
Music combined with choreographed dance - Ballet
Opera that was comical and meant to point out problems in the society Opera Buffa
Music played between scenes of a play - Incidental music
A song with German Poetry - Lied
A musical performed with a specific story, picture, or idea in mind by composer - Strophic
A musical form featuring the same music set to different verses of poetry - Leitmotif
Instrumental music composed with no particular idea, story or picture in mind - Absolute Music
Term refers to the support that royalty and the wealthy have provided to artist such as musician painters and sculptors - Patronage
This French term describes a musical idea or theme of a piece - Idee fixe
This German term referred to Wagner's concept of a "total work of art" - Gesamtkunstwerk
This instrumental genre features only one or two instruments, usually a piano - Sonata
A set of related songs, often on romantic theme, intended to form single musical entity - Song Cycle
V. Short Essay
Romanticism is an artistic, literally and intellectual movement that originated in Europe towards the end of the 18th century and was at its peak around the 1830s (Honour, 2018). In art, the term is associated with strong emotions. Romantic art focused on emotions, moods, and feelings. It centred on spirituality, imagination, and mystery. The subject matter included landscapes, revolution, landscapes, and beauty. Pronounced artists associated with romantic art include; Caspar David Friedrich, Francisco Goya, and Thomas Cole. Casper David is credited with painting the "The Third of May" which depicted the commemoration of the Spanish Resistance to France. The painting protested on the horrors of war. Thomas Cole's, "The Titan's Goblet" painting on the fanaticism of the Titans from the Greek Mythology.
In politics, Romanticism is characterized by the Romantic nationalism. The key ideas focus on the development of national languages and folklore centered on local customs and traditions. This was visible in Germany and Ireland politics where Germanic and Celtic cultures and identity dating back to the Roman-Latin ages were being sought out. Political figures influential in Romantic nationalism include Napoleon, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, and Adolf Hitler, among others (Kallen, 2007). It is characterized by rebellion, heroism, preservation of ruins and relics from ancient times, and preservation of ancient culture and identity.
In Literature, Romanticism focused on themes such as criticism of the past, women and children, isolation of narrator, and nature. Poets included; 16th-century poet Isabella di Morra, first English romantic poet Thomas Chatterson, Scottish poet James Macpherson, Walter Scott. Other renown romantic authors include Edgar Allan Poe and Nathaniel Hawthorne. Some of the romantic works in literature involved occult and human psychology. Generally, romantic literature was characterized by lack of satire, occultism,
Romanticism is also associated with the industry. For example, most antique clocks have a romantic characteristic. The clocks were decorated with the fine art of wood and ceramics. Romantic industrial types of equipment were characterized by Gothic and Roman Serif script writings and exquisite wood finishes (Kallen, 2007). It is also associated with the industrial revolution. Romanticism emphasized nature over the industry. With increased urbanization in this period, romantic expressions began appearing in building architecture. Romantic industrial manufactures include; D. Faggioli and Son, French manufacturer Casse & Naudet and Negretti & Zambra, among others.
ReferencesHonour, H. (2018). Romanticism. Boulder: Routledge.
Kallen, S. (2007). Romanticism. Detroit: Lucent Books.
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