Pathopharmacology: A Nursing Encounter With Mr. Johnson - Case Study

Paper Type:  Case study
Pages:  4
Wordcount:  1041 Words
Date:  2023-01-26


Pathopharmacology entails the scientific understanding of drugs, their composition, origin, toxicology, pharmacokinetics, and therapeutic utility. It refers to the reactions and properties of drugs, especially when it to correlation to therapeutic value on pathogen-related conditions. This paper illustrates a practical case of a nursing encounter with Mr. Johnson, and a patient whose symptoms indicate potentiality of anemia. The main inspiration behind the exercise is to discern effective and applicable remedies.

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The Condition of Anaemia

Anaemia Description and Symptoms

The condition of anemia generally refers to a state of inadequate hemoglobin or red blood cells in the circulatory system. Hemoglobin is a constituent of the red blood cells, which binds oxygen gas (World Health Organization, 2015). In the case of insufficiency or anomaly state of red blood cells or the level of hemoglobin, the other body cells get vulnerable to limited access to oxygen (World Health Organization, 2015). This postulate explains Mr. Johnson's symptoms like fatigue that emanate from the insufficient supply of the organ demands to function normally.

Some specific forms of the anemic condition are hereditary, and some infantry patients may be affected since birth. Childbearing women are vulnerable iron-deficiency anemia type owing to the blood that is lost as menses and needs for high blood supply during gestation periods (Lopez, Cacoub, Macdougall, & Peyrin-Biroulet, 2016). Notably, the old and adults are equally susceptible to anemia owing to other health disorders and poor diet.

Causes of Anaemia

Each one of the types of anemia is associated with a unique set of causes. There are over four hundred types of anemia, which can be divided into three: anemia caused by blood loss, anemia caused by the destruction of red blood cells, and anemia caused by reduced or faulty red blood cells production (Shukla et al., 2018). Under the group of blood loss-related anemia, chronic bleeding can be caused by gastrointestinal conditions like gastritis, hemorrhoids, cancer, or ulcers (Shukla et al., 2018). Other causes include menstruation and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) like ibuprofen or aspirin, which are prolific contributors to gastritis and ulcers (Auerbach & Adamson, 2016).

Moreover, the type that is caused by a reduced or faulty red blood cell production is associated with vitamin B12 deficiency, bone marrow and stem cell issues, iron-deficiency anemia, sickle-cell anemia, and other health conditions (Lopez et al., 2016). Similarly anemia caused by the destruction of red blood cells emanates from inherited disorders like thalassemia or sickle-cell anemia, toxins from elevated kidney or liver diseases, stressors such as drugs, infections, certain foods, and spider or snake venom, the hemolytic disease in new-borns, enlarged spleen, and vascular grafts and tumors (Porth, 2015).

For the case of Mr. Johnson, the ordered hemoccult blood test was positive. It means that there was a presence of occult blood (Alli, Vaughan, & Patel, 2017). Occult blood is often not visibly apparent. The results imply a high probability for gastrointestinal bleeding, which means Mr. Johnson is likely suffering from anemia caused by blood loss (Shukla et al., 2018). Also, it could be polyps in the rectum or colon or carcinogenic cells. However, not all polyps or cancers are prone to a bleeding condition. Mr. Johnson's health state relates to mild anemia caused by blood loss condition owing to proof by the pale appearance, fatigue, and shortness of breath (Alli et al., 2017). The mild condition explains the unclear manifestation of other symptoms such as chronic profuse bleeding (Olowoselu, Akanmu, Osunkalu, Olowoselu, & Ayanshina, 2017).

Appraisal of a Pharmacological Treatment for Anaemia

Owing to the identification of the type and state of anemia in Mr. Johnson, it is necessary to intervene accordingly. The treatment for mild anemia caused by blood loss befits the used of fluids, the transfusion of blood, oxygen, and possibly iron to help the body in building new and adequately functional red blood cells (Auerbach & Adamson, 2016). Medication-Assisted Treatments (MAT) for the case of Mr. Johnson's anemic condition revolve around the use of iron supplements that encode ferrous form of iron to pave the way for easier absorption into the body (Olowoselu et al., 2017). These treatment procedures are viable for Mr. Johnson to recover from anemia caused by blood loss (Karch, 2017).


Anemia is closely related to a lack of hemoglobin or the inadequacy of red blood cells. This phenomenon deters the supply of oxygen to vital areas of the blood through well-oxygenated blood. Mr. Johnson's situation relates to the presence of occult blood cells in the stool sample as well as symptoms such as fatigue, pale appearance, and shortness of breath (Alli et al., 2017). The results indicate the presence of gastrointestinal bleeding, whereby anemia caused by blood loss is detected (Alli et al., 2017). Treatments that befit are the use of iron supplements, fluids, blood transfusion, and oxygen to help the body cells regain the capacity to build enough hemoglobin and red blood cells (Porth, 2015).


Alli, N., Vaughan, J., & Patel, M. (2017). Anemia: Approach to diagnosis. SAMJ: South African Medical Journal, 107(1), 23-27. Retrieved from:

Auerbach, M., & Adamson, J. W. (2016). How we diagnose and treat iron deficiency anemia. American journal of hematology, 91(1), 31-38. Retrieved from:

Karch, A. M. (2017). Focus on nursing pharmacology (7th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. ISBN- 13: 978- 1496318213

Lopez, A., Cacoub, P., Macdougall, I. C., & Peyrin-Biroulet, L. (2016). Iron deficiency anemia. The Lancet, 387(10021), 907-916. Retrieved from:

Olowoselu, F. O., Akanmu, A. S., Osunkalu, V. O., Olowoselu, O. I., & Ayanshina, O. A. (2017). Evaluation of iron and folate deficiencies as possible causes of anemia in unfit blood donors. Africa Sanguine, 19(1), 13-17. Retrieved from:

Porth, C. M. (2015). Essentials of pathophysiology (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. ISBN- 13: 978- 1451190809

Shukla, S. K., Shukla, S., Verma, R. K., Singh, L. V., Khan, B. J., Gupta, V., & Sharma10, N. (2018). Study of Anaemia in children and current update. Journal homepage: www. ijbpr. in, 6(3), 1-3. Retrieved from:

World Health Organization. (2015). The global prevalence of anemia in 2011. Retrieved from:

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Pathopharmacology: A Nursing Encounter With Mr. Johnson - Case Study. (2023, Jan 26). Retrieved from

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