A robot is a machine that is used to enhance and extend human mobility. The use of robots in the manufacturing industry has been used for quite some time. There exists a challenge however since the robots are only able to work in one particular kind of environment. They should be made in a way they can relate with the humans around them as they work. The use of robots in the field working together with humans has both advantages and disadvantages that this paper seeks to discuss and also the views of the society in the adoption of robots. It will form part of the workforce in future where robots have even been given rights and have been taught how to live and communicate with people in the society such an example is Sophia the Saudi Arabian robot who was adopted and is being treated like a normal human being. She can relate with human beings she even portrays the fact of having emotion. All rights including the right to marry were granted to her by the Saudi Arabian government. Information Technology departments are so much in support of robots that have been adopted in various fields as will be discussed in this paper.
In tourism and hospitality have started to adopt robots in their daily taskforce for example robots are being used in the form of chatbots, delivery robots, conveyor restaurants, self-service information and in the check-in check-out kiosks. In the adoption of the robots to provide these services, there then arises the issue of false information being spread to the society by the media and information organizations showing the negative aspects of using these robots. Despite the threat that the adoption of the use of technology has caused, there are still many benefits too that the use of the same robots has impacted in the tourism and hospitality field as discussed below.
Financial benefits- robots are not like humans, they can work for a full day of 24 hours in a whole week and still not get tired or feel that they need to rest for some time, on the other hand, humans take a lot of time to work, they need rest and also need to be paid. Robots do not need payment all that is required is for them to be serviced at one time and the other to maintain good and proper working conditions for them to be effective during their work. Although robots cannot complete complex tasks alone, they need some human assistance as the law requires.
Non-financial benefits- through the use of the robot, the quality of work will be improved, of better quality both from the legal treatment. The entertaining by the way they are acting a legal treatment should be provided about how they are treatment. A company can even hire robots that work when needed, and they terminate the contract once they feel that the robots are no longer required they terminate the contract that they are entered into (Webster, 2017).
In the Robotic Process Automation (RPA) it is a unique feature that has characteristics it aims at re-engineering and business management process. The process of management can be compared to the recorded macros that automate specific tasks. Properly automated processes require little or no supervision and thus are more automated.
Robots currently need precise instructions to complete tasks; these tasks have some significant ambiguity are not typically candidates for automation. Second, high volume, repeated tasks can benefit more from automation. Tasks associated with payroll accounts payable, and accounts receivable are often mundane and recurring, making them good candidates. Third, mature tasks should be targeted. They have more predictable outcomes, and the costs are known. Automating such types of tasks is less risky. The use of RPA results into the performance of economic tasks that are repetitive and manual and for tasks that require elements of human and those that require uncertain outcomes that happen infrequently. When a company intends to use RPA for the first time they should look for easy wins and therefore, tasks that are complex and require an understanding of the particular task being done.
Moreover, the considerations for RPA-based audits and a series of research questions are presented with the aim to generate a discussion in this evolutionary area (Moffitt, 2018).
In the field of Robotic-assisted surgical techniques, they have not yet been well established among surgeons in their practice groups and beyond a few surgical sub-specialties. To help identify the implementers and blockades towards their adoption, the belief-elicitation study explained in depth and supplemented constructs of the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) in robotic-assisted surgery. Semi-structured interviews with different individuals were conducted with 21 surgeons comprising two groups: the first one was for users and the second one for the nonusers.
The main facilitators to adoption were Perceived Usefulness and Facilitating Conditions among both users and nonusers, followed by positive Boldness towards expending technology among users and extrinsic inspiration among nonusers. There are three main barriers to adoption for both users and nonusers are alleged ease of use and complexity, perceived usefulness, and perceived behavioral control. In a study conducted the findings were for assisting surgeons, hospital and medical school administrators, and other policymakers on the proper adoption of robotic-assisted surgery and can help to guide future research on the way in which development of theories and framing of hypotheses can be achieved (BenMessaoud, Kharrazi, & MacDorman, 2011).
Challenges resulting from the use of robots in the economic sector exist from the legal perspective and also ethical perspective. When robots become more and more part of daily life, there arise legal questions regarding their interactions with humans, and their consequences have to be addressed. At the time being, robots are considered machines, and liability is being judged by existing regulations. There should be laws that govern the use of machines. Using human controls on machines that the nature of humans has not been adopted would be a difficult task. Therefore to deal with this, it is either the robots are given rights like other humans or laws be taken for easy implementation in case of a dispute. Ethical challenges robots should behave similarly to humans according to Asimov, 1986 there are three main laws to govern the ethics of robots as follows. The first one is that a robot would not injure a human being or through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. Secondly, the robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with any law. Thirdly, a robot must protect its existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the laws.
In conclusion, the use of robots to assist in the economic sector is two-sided, first on the side of the entrepreneurs and owners of businesses; they have advantages because considering one fact that robots do not require any rests or breaks. They only need to be serviced. The only disadvantage on their side is the fact that robots cannot be required to complete specific complex tasks. Therefore, they have to be given human assistance in such a field of work. To the rest of the people, the use of robots has caused a huge disadvantage to them because they have to look for other jobs since they are no longer required as much to provide various services like it was in the past. Although technology is right and has helped people a lot, remedies should be found to strike a balance between human and robots use for economic development.
BenMessaoud, Kharrazi, MacDorman "Facilitators and Barriers to Adopting Robotic-Assisted Surgery: Contextualizing the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology" accessed on 7thDecember 2018 from https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0016395Dignan L (2014)
"IT jobs' big threat: Robots, automation; the solution: More humanity" accessed on 7th December 2018 from https://www.zdnet.com/article/it-jobs-big-threat-robots-automation-the-solution-more-humanity/Moffitt, Rozario, Vasarhelyi (2018)
"Robotic Process Automation for Auditing." Journal of Emerging Technologies in Accounting: Spring 2018, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 1-10.https://doi.org/10.2308/jeta-10589
Savirimuthu, Joseph (2018). Robot Ethics 2.0: From Autonomous Cars to Artificial Intelligence, by Patrick Lin, Keith Abney and Ryan Jenkins (eds International Journal of Law and Information Technology 337-34610.1093/ijlit/eay011 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ijlit/eay011 International Journal of Law and Information Technology December 1, 2018 26(4):337
Webster, Ivanov (2018). "Adoption Of Robots, Artificial Intelligence And Service Automation By Travel, Tourism And Hospitality Companies - A Cost-Benefit Analysis" accessed on 7th December 2018 from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318653596_
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