AI Turing Test: Determining Human-Level Reasoning in Machines - Essay Sample

Paper Type:  Essay
Pages:  5
Wordcount:  1217 Words
Date:  2023-01-29


A Turing test is a technique of analyses in artificial intelligence (AI) so as to understand whether a computer can think like a man or not. The main goal of the Turing test is to determine whether a machine can reason like a human being. In this case, the test is done by engaging three parties, a man (A), a woman (B), and an interrogator (C) (Minsky, 2017). The interrogator is kept in a different room from the other two persons. This approach gives research a good perception of whether a machine can reason like human beings by differentiating the two individual based on their gender. As such, a man is given a role to prevent an interrogator from identifying the two people based on their gender effectively. On the other hand, the woman works together with an interrogator to assist it in identifying each person. To be perceived as pass, an interrogator was required to identify the two persons' gender and take part in the game. On the other hand, if an interrogator may fail to decide who is the woman or man in the game, it will be perceived as a failure. When Turing conducted "the Imitation Game", the woman was used as the identifying factor (Gurkaynak, Yilmaz, & Haksever, 2016). In this concept, two women and one man were used. One woman was required to convince the other lady that she was a man. In case, the woman passed the test, Turing would conclude that the machine can think like a human being.

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According to functionalism, minds and their activities are functional units that are differentiated based on their roles (Gurkaynak, Yilmaz, & Haksever, 2016). This concept refutes that mind is defined based on a substance made from. In this case, something is a mental process is it engage in a particular activity. Additionally, functionalism operates in the principle that activity is organized in a specific manner. Due to this concept, the computer has the ability to do engage in the same activities as the mind. Therefore, a computer and a brain operate in the same state due to the application of input, which is a perceptual mechanism to produce particular feedback or reaction. According to Muller and Bostrom (2016), beliefs and desire cause a component to react in a particular manner. For an element to be perceived as intelligent, it must have thoughts which are then processed according to a particular principle of reasons. This reasoning makes a person to react in a particular way. In computers, there are programs which operate under certain rules (Russell & Norvig, 2016). These programs make a computer to reason and react based on the input. This concept operates in the same manner as a human mind, which operates and follows certain principles when making an output (Minsky, 2017). However, beliefs may effect mind performance since they change how a person reasons. Furthermore, for a component to think and comprehend, symbols must be manipulated in a particular manner or program. Based on this concept of mental performance, the future artificial intelligence is possible. This intelligence will influence how a certain task is conducted. The reasoning will be grounded on the manipulation of symbols which can easily be done in the same manner by a computer (Muller & Bostrom, 2016).

According to John Searle, functionalism is not correct, and the concept of artificial intelligence is not possible (Muller & Bostrom, 2016). As a way of explaining his argument, Searle gave an example of counterexample, "The Chinese room," which refuted the concept of functionalism. In the Chinese room experiment, Searle considers himself in a room as he follows a computer program which reacts to Chinese symbols (Gurkaynak, Yilmaz, & Haksever, 2016). Searle does not understand Chinese; hence, the writing is meaningless symbols. As such, the book will be the 'computer program', individuals who developed the book represent 'programmers', Searle signified the computer, and the basket which contained the symbols represented the data base. Based on the concept, computer programs are formal or syntactic (Minsky, 2017). On the other hand, human brains have mental substances which have the ability to develop something meaningful. In this case, when a mind receives a word, it develop a meaning based on the reasoning. Searle insisted that syntax is neither a constitutive or nor sufficient for brain content. Additionally, the program is neither constitutive or enough to be compared with the mind. Therefore, some of the activities the mind can respond and conduct a computer cannot. Normally, Searle insisted that the person inside the room manipulated the symbols according to a certain principle without comprehending (Gurkaynak, Yilmaz, & Haksever, 2016). Therefore, there was no form of reasoning. On the other hand, a computer can operate and give feedback, even if it does not understand a certain concept. In this case, a computer takes symbols to make them meaningful, which tries to represent the world. This concept effectively refutes the idea that computers can perform in the same manner as a human mind, which is associated with functionalism (Muller & Bostrom, 2016).

After Searle developed an argument regarding the concept of functionalism, there were various responses. Robots interacting with the world was the best response regarding Searle argument. According to the response, a robot can give a meaning of symbols due to their interaction (Minsky, 2017). In this case, it is possible to state that there is a fire when one views a smoke. These are two factors that operate together. Normally, smoke is brought by fire; hence, whenever there is smoke, automatically there is a fire. Through this concept, there is a relationship between a symbol and meaning. When one takes place, automatically, the other will occur. Therefore, a robot tries to create a relationship between world and word (Gurkaynak, Yilmaz, & Haksever, 2016). In this case, when a world smoke is provided, automatically, it creates a perception that there is a fire.


In conclusion, there is a great similarity between how a computer operates and a human mind. These two components process input to react in a particular manner. Additionally, a computer and a brain follow certain rules which help them to develop a certain react. A computer and a brain operate in the same state due to the application of inputs which are a perceptual mechanism to produce certain feedback or reaction. The ability to identify an aspect based on its characteristic shows that machine have the ability to think. They reasoning are based on certain rules or program. Programmer shapes and draw how a computer will be operating to ensure they are able to react based on a certain input.


Gurkaynak, G., Yilmaz, I., & Haksever, G. (2016). Stifling artificial intelligence: Human perils. Computer Law & Security Review, 32(5), 749-758. Retrieved from

Minsky, M. (2017). The emotion machine: Commonsense thinking, artificial intelligence, and the future of the human mind. Simon and Schuster.

Muller, V. C., & Bostrom, N. (2016). Future progress in artificial intelligence: A survey of expert opinion. In Fundamental issues of artificial intelligence (pp. 555-572). Springer, Cham. Retrieved from

Russell, S. J., & Norvig, P. (2016). Artificial intelligence: a modern approach. Malaysia; Pearson Education Limited, Retrieved from

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AI Turing Test: Determining Human-Level Reasoning in Machines - Essay Sample. (2023, Jan 29). Retrieved from

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