Manual for Managerial Change in Metropolitan Schools - Essay Sample

Paper Type:  Essay
Pages:  7
Wordcount:  1707 Words
Date:  2023-02-07


The objective of the manual is to provide necessary guidelines for principal staff to conduct managerial change in improving the education standards in the metropolitan school district. The manual is developed from five major models of change, giving details of how the models can be applied to achieve change. The manual later provides recommendations of the models that school principals should adopt in improving the teachers' and students' motivation.

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Force Field Analysis

This model involves analyzing the pressures for and against change. This tool identifies both the affirmative and negative factors of change. The purpose of applying the model is to identify the obstacles that stand in the search for a goal (Cameron & Green, 2015). It will be useful to schools that are stuck in the problem of poor performance. It is a significant model of change when possible causes and solutions are sought. By its application, results that can be expected include expansion of perspectives by identifying negative emotions and facts that emphasize the need for change (Dynamizer). The school heads get to think together about all aspects related to making the desired change permanent. They reach an agreement regarding priority relative of the factors found on each side of the sheet of balance. Eventually, honest reflection is promoted about the true roots of the problem of poor academic results and possible solutions (Nash, Manning & Heiser, 2019).

Taking as a central base the existence of two basic forces in the human being, the positive driving forces (in English driving forces ) and the negative reducing forces ( restraining forces ) the change will come when, having assessed the weight of each of these forces, the so-called equilibrium point has been reached (Todnem, 2005). It is at that moment when you have all the necessary elements of judgment to make a decision that can change the situation.

Bridges' Transition Model

This model was developed by William bridges. The tool is critical for any organization planning to change. The key concept of the Bridges model proposes is transformation focusing mainly on the differences between change and transition. The change mainly points out the necessary change while the transition focuses on the actual process achieving the identified change (Dima, & Skehill, 2011). Bridges model comprises three main stages that will lead to change in any organization

Final, Lose and Let Go

According to Bridges, people may show resistance and emotional discomfort when a change is introduced. Emotions experienced may arise work context, habits, fear and resentment. Change may fail as organizations want a quick transition. For a change to occur, the principal staff should be conscious of the change and embrace new beginnings.

Neutral Zone

This is the second phase of the change process. It is a stage is characterized by uncertainty and confusion as it acts as the bridge between the old system and the new one. By this time staff has already realized and experienced the change but not used to the new way of doing happens to be an awkward moment for the concerned teams. At this stage, the organizations' productivity may decline. Since the process is not yet fully operational, some parts still require improvement and adjustments. School managers should take advantage of this circumstance to try new concepts and foster improvements.

The New Start

After the neutral phase comes to the new start stage which is the last phase of transition. This is a stage of accepting the changes and moving on. The staff embraces new policies and learn its significance. The staff learns and develop new skills through support and guidance. The stage is characterized by new energy and a spirit of commitment.

Kotter's 8-Step Change Model

Due to the emotional discomfort and intimidation resulting from the process of change, people may resist change (Varkey, & Antonio, 2010). There is a need to develop a strategy to ensure there is a quick transition. Kotter developed 8-steps that organizations should follow in the process as discussed below.

Increase the Sense of Urgency

For change to take place, every member of the team needs to be attentive. The entire staff should be familiar with the need for the change to develop this sense of urgency. There is a need for the leading team to present an open and honest discussions about what is happening in the competing institutions.

Form a Guide Team for Change

It is important to involve a team other than just top managers in implementing change. Suggestions and ideas should come from all levels of the education departments to achieve overall success in education.

Have the Right Vision

It is important to come up with an encouraging vision for everyone to work towards that vision. A clear vision will enhance change as people will have a better understanding of the change being proposed. To create a vision for change, the school principals must determine the values that are fundamental to change. This will be achieved by creating a summary of observations as the future of the organization. Finally, a strategy to execute that vision is created.

Communicate to Build Loyalty

The vision should be well communicated, with honesty and urgency. Necessary communication concerning the change should be done frequently giving all the details. School principals need to apply the vision when making decisions in schools. Putting words into action is critical in this stage.

Eliminate Obstructions to Empower The Action

Obstacles of change like cynical attitudes, outdated procedures should be eliminated. After familiarization with the Vision in the course of the process of change, the stakeholders in the education sector will want to deal with the change and get the benefits they have been promoting.

Lay Down Short-Term Objectives

We must start by making small changes that are realized in the short term and that build hope and greater energy to continue. It is vital to give the members of staff the feeling of victory during the early stages of the change process.

Maintain Focus on The Final Objective

Kotter emphasizes the need to keep track of the maximum objective of the change process. The launching of a new product using a completely new system is an indication that the new system works. To reach optimum success and victory, improvements must be incorporated into the process (Varkey & Antonio, 2010). Each victory provides an opportunity to build on what went well and determine what can be improved. Institutionalize the company's new behaviors, policies, and attitudes. Continuous efforts should be maintained to ensure change is realized in all aspects of the education system in the district. Everyone who is connected to the education sector should get involved in ensuring that the vision of the institutions is attained.

Lewin's Change Management Model

The classic model of change management was proposed by Kurt Lewin (Cummings, Bridgman & Brown, 2016). This model is basically that a system is stable because the driving forces and the restrictive forces keep it that way; therefore, the modification of these forces will bring system changes. The driving forces are responsible for helping in the process of change and the restrictive forces prevent change. Lewin's model consists of three stages to generate changes in the organization, defrosting, displacement or advancement and re-freezing. The defrost stage is defined as: "Defrosting of the current level of behavior. To decrease prejudices" (Cummings et al., 2016). This stage is characterized by "a phase of deferment of the system and creation of motivations or willingness to change". The participation of all the actors of the change, pointing out that "The defrosting phase is completed when the individuals who participate understand and accept the need for change". So, in the defrosting stage, it is essential to work with one of the two forces of the model, either decreasing the restrictive forces or by increasing the driving forces to achieve changes in the organization.


The ADKAR lens reveals the key concepts that influence successful change and as well as the possible actions for the implementation of these concepts. The model is based on five major elements (Karambelkar & Bhattacharya, 2017). The first one is creating awareness of the business reasons for the change. Conscience is a result of efficient communication within an organizational change. Secondly, it is important to desire to commit and participate in the change. Desire is the result of sponsorship and resistance management. Knowledge of change is the third element. Knowledge is a result of the training. Fourthly, the ability to make or implement the change in performance level is required. The skill is a result of extensive training and policy amendments. Lastly, Reinforcement is critical in ensuring that the change is maintained. Reinforcement results from the adoption of new ideas and acknowledgment of management change (Karambelkar & Bhattacharya, 2017).


By adopting the models discussed above, the metropolitan school district will eradicate the ill-managed changed that has resulted in poor academic performance. The force field analysis model application makes it possible to identify both the positive and negative forces facing change. When the obstacles facing academic success have been eliminated, the teachers and students will be motivated into better performance. By studying the actions to mitigate or, if appropriate, annul the negative forces and taking actions to reinforce or add the positive forces, conclusions that establish new forms of work can be easily reached.


Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making sense of change management: A complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organizational change. Kogan Page Publishers.

Cummings, S., Bridgman, T., & Brown, K. G. (2016). Unfreezing change as three steps: Rethinking Kurt Lewin's legacy for change management. Human relations, 69(1), 33-60.

Dima, G., & Skehill, C. (2011). Making sense of leaving care: The contribution of Bridges model of transition to understanding the psycho-social process. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(12), 2532-2539.

Karambelkar, M., & Bhattacharya, S. (2017). Onboarding is a change: Applying change management model ADKAR to onboarding. Human Resource Management International Digest, 25(7), 5-8.

Nash, M. M., Manning, M. R., & Heiser, E. J. (2019). Applying Lewin's Force Field Theory to facilitate SWOT analysis: an effective and efficient approach. In Preparing for High Impact Organizational Change. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Todnem By, R. (2005). Organisational change management: A critical review. Journal of change management, 5(4), 369-380.

Varkey, P., & Antonio, K. (2010). Change management for effective quality improvement: a primer. American Journal of Medical Quality, 25(4), 268-273.

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Manual for Managerial Change in Metropolitan Schools - Essay Sample. (2023, Feb 07). Retrieved from

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