Anaerobic exercises involve training methods in which oxygen is not required as the source of energy. It is comprised of high-intensity training regimens that utilize short bursts of energy for example resistance training, and sprinting (Plowman, & Smith, 2014). The body makes a variety of physiological transformations concerning such kind of training which not only lead to tremendous physical performance but also good health as well. For instance, extensive research has attributed anaerobic training to an increase in the employment of motor unit tracts which streamlines their operations along the spinal cord. As such, the motor nerves are deployed even faster to the muscles leading to a gradual increase in strength. If such kind of training is solely performed over a duration of one year then, the body will undergo a variety of adaptations such; as an increase in muscle mass, better resistance to muscle fatigue, stronger ligament and tendons, and an improved endocrine system that enhances the production of testosterone and also insulin for better absorption of glucose.
Aerobic exercises, on the other hand, involve physical activities which utilize oxygen in the production of energy (Plowman, & Smith, 2014). If this type of training protocol is performed for over a year, then an individual can boost his/her endurance and also decrease their body fat. It shares some similarities to anaerobic training such as the fact that it vastly utilizes and improves the cardiovascular system. It also leads to an increases the percentage of lean muscle in the body thus improving ones overall fitness. There are some noticeable differences nonetheless, with the most apparent one being the fact that aerobic training requires oxygen while anaerobic training does not. Further, still, though both may result in the formation of lean muscle mass, the outcome in aerobic training is less distinct especially after the body becomes adapted to the training regimen as opposed to anaerobic training. Aerobic exercises are also tailored for endurance while anaerobic exercises are best suited for resistance training.My ability to discern between these two, types of training will enable me to acknowledge that the body performs differently when exposed to different stimuli and bearing this in mind I will tailor my training sessions to best suit the goals of my different clients.
Section Two: Fundamental Body Movements
This section shall list a detailed description of the fundamental movements that occur within the human anatomy of which there are six in total.
I. Flexion This can be described as the increase in the bend between two parts of the body. This kind of movement manifests at the knee, elbow, hip, and shoulder joints. The most common exercises involved with such kind of movement include bicep curls and the hamstring stretch (Lauren & Clark, 2016).
II. Extension This is the opposite of flexion, and it increases the angle/reduces the bend between two parts of the body. The joints involved in this movement are the same, and examples of extension exercises include leg and triceps extensions.
III. Abduction This type of movement involves maneuvering a part of the body further from the center point. The movement occurs around the arm and shoulder joints, and an example of abduction exercise is the lateral dumbbell raise.
IV. Abduction This is the antagonistic/opposite movement of abduction. An example exercises which uses this movement is the dumbbell flyes.
V. Rotation This is the circular motion of a body part, and it is evident on the upper arm. Tennis players usually display this type of movement when the perform a backhanded hit of the ball
VI. Circumduction This sequence of movements resembles a cone, as such the body parts involved usually make conical movements for example when bowling.
There are exercises that utilize various muscle movements at a time, and they are known as compound exercises, for example, the squat routine. This exercise combines hip, knee and ankle movements. My grasp of this knowledge will help me in developing a training structure that uses different movements to target separate muscle fibers.
Section Three: The stretching Concept
According to Laughlin, (2014), stretching is a type of exertion which positions the body in a manner that will elongate tendons and muscle fibers which in turn; improves their range of motion, increases their performance and reduces the chances of injuries. Stretching is usually incorporated into fitness regimes as part of the warm-up process. (Laughlin, 2014) Affirms that low temperatures decrease blood supply to the muscles which reduce their elasticity and increases the risk of injury. However, concrete prove linking stretching to increased flexibility is yet to be established. The current research reveals that the muscle reverts to its original size after stretching and it remains unclear whether this has any effect on flexibility. The increased range of motion caused by routine stretching procedures results from the nervous system being reprogrammed to be passive at higher stretch levels. This process is referred to as stretch tolerance, and it is designed to counter the constrained range of motion brought about by a sedentary lifestyle. This said, however, flexibility is important in a fitness regimen because it enhances muscle conditioning and also aerobic exercises. Rather than stretching for improved flexibility, stretching can be done as a general relaxing routine and as a means of releasing tension. Some of the stretches that I have performed based on the texts that I have read include hamstring stretches and shoulder stretches. For the hamstring, I decided to do the static stretch in which I sat down and bend one of my legs under my hip and straightened the other. I then leaned forward and tried to reach for my toes with my fingers and held that position for a couple of seconds. The shoulder routine was quite different because I performed neck and shoulder rolls while standing in an upright position and I also incorporated a variety of other movements. I plan to introduce stretching into my future training programs as post workout routine that shall be focussed on reducing the tension on fatigued muscles.
Section Four: Laws of Training
This segment of the study shall analyse the work out plans adopted by five individuals who shall remain anonymous and shall be assigned the names A, B, C, D and E. A is a novice who has been training for less than a month, B has relative experience with a year of training under his belt. C has been training for over two years but only goes to the gym at most twice a week, D has been training for over five years but regularly takes a break of up to 2 months at a time. E meanwhile is a seasoned individual that has more than five years of experience and regularly attends his training sessions. These training routines shall be scrutinized and compared with the seven training laws which are; the overload, over compensation, the specificity, and the use/disuse principles, the adaptation rule, individual differences law and the specific adaptation principle. Since person A is a novice, then he will fall in the overcompensation category. This is where the body adapts by making changes so that it can cope with similar stresses applied to it in future. This is the stage at which one experiences the fastest gains from their work out. The overload rule would best be suited for individual B because his body is still making improvements based on the excess stress that is being applied to it. The same principle would also apply for individual C, who has been doing his training at weekly intervals for about two years. Though D has been training for quite a while, his training regimen has been start-stop in nature, and as such he spends most of his time trying to recover a specific fitness level which he loses after taking a break. As a result, he is in a plateau phase, and thus the use/disuse law applies for him since his training goals are focussed on not losing a certain skill set instead of improving on them i.e. he either uses or loses that skill. The specificity rule would apply for individual E whose skill level would rival that of a professional. He has fine-tuned specific areas in his training which have registered in his nervous systems and so he is at a very high level and depending on his age fatigue rarely plays a part in his training unless under intense workouts. In my future endeavors, I will use these different laws of training acknowledging the different skill set of my clients. I would also make my program to suit the schedule of different individuals which I believe shall motivate their regular participation.
Section Five: Training and Nutrition
Based on the study prompt, this part of the essay shall identify three individuals, whose anonymity status shall see them assigned X, Y, and Z as their respective names. Their similarity stems from the fact that they are all new to training and nutrition while their differences come from the unique limiting factors that each of them experiences in achieving their goals. X aims to add weight after a period of training, whereas Y hopes to lose weight. Z just wants to stay fit. X has various factors that curtail his development, of which the major ones are nutrition his mindset and the fact that he regularly over trains. Though X wants to gain mass, he barely incorporates any protein in his nutrition and tries to compensate the lack of growth by increasing his training hours. My action plan as a trainer to counter these tendencies would be to try and change his mindset so that he can acknowledge nutrition is just as important as the workout he puts in. Y, on the other hand, goes out a lot and partakes in a lot of junk food. His mindset is also wanting. He lacks motivation and displays general laziness. My training action plan would include developing a count of the calorie intake which he must not exceed, and also developing achievable targets as well as participating in some of his training routines so as to try and improve his motivation. Person Z is more orientated towards cross fitness, and his enthusiasm has him training a lot with insufficient recovery time, and as such he gets a lot of injuries. He also does not factor the necessary amount of protein in his diet. Based on this I would develop a program that increases his recovery time, and I would also modify his nutrition to include the necessary amount of carbohydrate and protein to fuel his workouts. In future, I plan to use my knowledge on nutrition and training to come up with a program that emphasizes just as much on nutrition as it does on working out.
Section Six: Exercise and Youth
According to LeMura, (2013), there are several advantages associated with engaging in exercise at a young age. The most pronounced ones are conditioned and strong muscles, regulation of the levels of blood sugar and also blood pressure, improved balance thus reducing the risk of falling and an overall higher self-esteem (Zatsiorsky, &Kraemer, 2015).Another overlooked advantage is improved academic performance. Plowman, & Smith, (2014) affirm that exercise triggers the release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine in the brain. This chemical helps improve attention. In fact, drugs that are administered to treat ADHD work by stimulating the release of the dopamine hormone in the brain which goes to show that regular exercise, especially for children with the ADHD disorder, can have the same effect as the prescription medicine (Lauren & Clark, 2016). The risks that can be associated with exercise among the youth are mainly related t...
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